The most common types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Along with gestational and LADA, these forms of diabetes are polygenic diseases that require the involvement of many genes and a wide variety of environmental factors to cause each disease. There are some rare forms of diabetes, Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) and Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM) that are monogenic where only one gene is responsible for the disease. Of the 30,000 genes in the human body, about 20 genes have been linked to monogenic diabetes so far.
Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease affecting about 30,000 people in the U.S. alone. People with CF produce very sticky, thick mucas which affect the cell function of the lungs, pancreas, intestines and reporductive organs. This mucas blocks the flow of insulin (enzymes) into the intestines, which inturn prevents proper digestion of food, this often leads to Type 2 diabetes. Infact over 40% of the individuals with CF, ages 30 and up, have developed Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD).
Hemochromatosis is an inherited disease that causes excessive amounts of iron to accumulate in the body. Although diabetes can be one of many unwanted side effects of the iron overload, the rate of hemochromatosis is no higher in those with diabetes than those without.
Gestational Diabetes is a form of Type 2 diabetes that begins during pregnancy, often near the end of the second trimester or during the third trimester. It is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or by a shortage of insulin. It affects 7% of all pregnancies and over 200,000 women a year in the U.S. Although this form of diabetes tends to go away after the baby is born, type 2 diabetes is more likely later in life.
|The Insulin Resistance Syndrome|
|A diagnosis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome is established when 3 or more of these risk factors are present.|
|Risk Factor||Defining Level|
Pre-diabetes (previously called Impaired Glucose Tolerance IGT) was first named in 2003 and is designed to foster attention and action in people who receive this diagnosis. It is defined as having a blood glucose level that is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. The cutoff for pre-diabetes is a fasting blood sugar of 100 mg/dl. Fasting levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl are diagnosed as pre-diabetes and a fasting level of 126 mg/dl and up is diabetes.