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Actos and Avandia (Glitazones)

Thiazolidinediones or glitazones are the first class of medication designed to reverse the basic problem in Type 2 diabetes of resistance to insulin. Insulin resistance appears to be associated with high blood pressure and the high triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol problem that puts many people with Type 2 diabetes at risk for heart disease.

The Incretins: GLP-1 Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

We all know that insulin, either naturally from beta cell or injected from outside, affects the level of glucose in the blood. Other compounds from the gut, called Incretins, also lower the glucose level, as well as affects other biologic areas. In 1902, researchers first proposed that the gut might directly signal the pancreas. The term incretin was first used in 1930 to describe the enhanced glucose lowering effect that was seen when a gut extract was fed to dogs. In the 1960s, researchers discovered that almost twice as much insulin was released when they infused glucose directly into the gut rather than into the blood as an IV solution. This renewed the search for compounds produced by the gut that might contribute to lowering the glucose.

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